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Definitions / Glossary

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IANA. Internet Assigned Number Authority
(Autoridad de Asignación de Números en Internet).

The IANA was in charge of the central register of protocols, ports, numbers of protocols and codes of the Internet until he was replaced in 1998 by ICANN.

ICANN. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(Corporación de Internet para la Asignación de Nombres y Números)

Dedicated to preserving the stability of the Internet by means of processes based on consensus. It is an organization nonprofit that operates internationally, responsible for:

  • IP (identifiers of protocol): allocate space of numeric addresses of Internet protocol.
  • TLD: Management and administration of the system of domain names of first level generic (.com .net .info...) and codes of countries (.is .fr .it...) system
  • Administration of Internet root servers.

Dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet, promoting competition, achieving broad representation of communities of the world of Internet and developing policy appropriate to its mission through the process "from the bottom up" based on consensus.

IDNs. Internationalizated Domain Name
Un nombre de dominio internacionalizados (IDN)

Are domain names or Web addresses, represented in the characters in the local language. Have the potential to transform the Internet in a tool truly global and multilingual, which allows users to navigate and communicate using the script wishing.

These writing systems are coded by teams of multi-Unicode byte. Idns are stored in the Domain Name System as ASCII strings using transcript Punycode.

ISOC. La Internet Society (ISOC)
Sociedad de Internet

It is an international organization nonprofit founded in 1992 to coordinate the development, evolution and uses of the Internet for the benefit of all users. Among many of its functions, promotes the implantation, the use and accessibility of users in developing countries.

ISP. Internet Service Provider
Proveedor de servicios de Internet

Company dedicated to connect to the Internet users, or the various networks that have, and to give the necessary maintenance for the access function properly.

TLD. Top-level Domain
Terminación de un dominio

This termination is called top-level domain. Tend to be two or more letters that relate to a code territorial (based on the ISO-3166) or to a list of generic names.

The TLD can be:

  • gtlds or Generic: Used by a particular kind of organizations (for example,. com for commercial organizations). They have three or more letters long
  • uTLD or NonSponsored: .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .name, .net, .org
  • sTLD or Sponsored: .aero, .cat, .coop, .jobs, .museum, .pro, .travel
  • cctld or Geographical: Used by a country or a dependent territory. They have two letters long, for example: .es (Spain), .it (Italy), .fr (France), .of (Germany), .Co.
  • Infrastructure: .arpa, .root

Others:

  • Startup Phase: .mobi, .asia, .post, .tel
  • Proposed: .cym, .geo, .kid, .kids, .mail, .sco, .web
  • Deleted/withdrawn: .nato
  • Reserved: .example, .invalid, .localhost, .test
  • Pseudominios: .bitnet, .csnet, .local, .onion, .uucp

The majority of the gtlds are available for the global use, but for historical reasons .mil (military) and .gov (government) are restricted for use by the respective authorities americans.

DNS. Domain Name System
sistema de nombre de dominio

Nomenclature System hierarchical for computers, services or any appeal connected to the internet or a private network. This system associated information varied with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Its most important function, is to translate (resolve) names intelligible to the human identifiers in binary associated with the equipment connected to the network, this with the purpose of power locate and routing these teams worldwide. For example:

192.0.32.7 = www.icann.org

Types of DNS servers

  • Primary: Keep the data from an area of names on their files.
  • Secondary: Obtained the data of the primary servers through a transfer of the area.
  • Local or Cache: Work with the same software, but do not contain the database for the resolution of names. When they are performed a consultation, these in turn consults the secondary servers, storing the response in its database to expedite the repetition of these requests in the fut

RIPE and RIPE NCC. Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
Centro de Coordinación de redes IP europeas

It is an organization non profit with more than 5000 members belonging to the approximately 70 countries belonging to its service area.

It is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Europe, Middle East and parts of Central Asia.a RIR oversees the allocation and registration of the numbers of Internet resources (IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addresses and numbers of Autonomous Systems) in a specific region.RIPE NCC coordinates and manages the Internet infrastructure. Any person or organization can become a member of RIPE NCC.RIPE NCC also provides technical support and administrative IP Networks European (Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE)), a forum open to all parties concerned in the technical development of Internet

Registrador. Registrar
Registrador de dominios

A registrar for domain is a company that sells Internet domains. Allow an individual or company to pay an annual fee in exchange for having a domain name, such as .com, .es, .org, .net, and many others.

Registro. Registry
Registro de dominios

The registration of domain is the process by which a person passes have control over a domain name in exchange for a fee to the registrar. The steps are as follows:

  1. Choose the domain or domains.
  2. Check if that domain is available.
  3. Given their personal data.
  4. Choose the time for which the purchase in years.
  5. Payment with credit card or bank transfer.
  6. Details of its configuration, and Use: redirecting to DNS, IP, URL etc.
  7. The registrant has to wait until the changes take effect. For the .com and .net is between 4 and 8 hours, and for others, between 24 and 48 hours. In that period:
    1. The registrar contact with InterNIC and just the process with them, in a transparent manner for the registrant.
    2. It was alerted to the registrant that has become the registration without problems.
    3. The new domain works, and resolves the IP appropriate in the DNS server used, but not in the rest of DNS servers of the world.
    4. Little by little is spreading the change to the rest of servers (spread DNS). As each have different times for updating and parameters of cache different, spend more time.

The data needed to register a domain are:

  • Official Registrar of domains: Company register journal entered in ICANN which is responsible for preserving the data from the records.
  • Owner of the domain: person or entity that figure as owner and legitimate owner by the registration period.
  • Administrative Contact: person or entity designated by the owner who figure as administrator of the data of the domain in favor of the owner.
  • Technical Contact: person or entity that is responsible for the maintenance of the DNS numbers of the domain for the correct functioning and liaison in the network. Contact.
  • billing: person or entity that will make the payment by the renovations of the domain.
  • DNS (Domain Name Servers) ( Server of Domain Names ): These numbers (minimum 2) contained in the registration of domain names and show the addresses IPs of the servers that will be in charge of the petitions to the domini

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